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Thymus

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Thymus of Human Organ
The thymus is a vascular organ of the lymphatic system situated just behind the breastbone. The human thymus continuous to grow for about a year after birth, reaching a weight of about 42 g; this size is maintained until puberty. After puberty the lymphatic tissue is replaced by fat, but the thymus remains functional throughout life.





The main function of thymus is to process lymphocytes received from the blood producing bone marrow and fetal liver. These cells proliferate and differentiate in the thymus into thymic lymphoid cells called T cells, each one programmed for the number of antigens to which it will react. In humans the cellular immune system requires the presence of the thymus at birth; this system allows the body to recognize foreign, that is “non self” tissue and to attack malignant cells, viral infection, fungal infection, and some bacteria. Little is known of the factors and processes of thymic function. The importance of the thymus to the human imm…

Thyroid Gland

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Thyroid Gland and Endocrine Gland

The thyroid, and endocrine gland, synthesizes stores and secretes two hormones, thyroxine or tetraiodothyronine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3), that are chemically related and important to human growth and metabolism. Located below the larynx (voice box), the thyroid’s two lobes occurs on either side of the wind-pipe, connected by an isthmus (band of tissue). The gland is composed of many hollow sacs (follicles) filled with colloid (a gelatin material), which contains thyroglobulin, the storage form of the hormones. Essential to the synthesis of the hormones is inorganic iodide, which diffuses from citonin of calcitonin, acts against excessive levels of calcium in the blood and against the effects of parathyroid hormone on bone resorption.

Thyroid hormone secretion is controlled by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), or thyrotropin, from the anterior pituitary. In turn the resultant increase in the level of thyroid hormones in the blood serves to sign…

Kidney Structure

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Human Kidney and Function of Kidney
Kidney is a human organ  like kidney beans shaped. In humans, kidney size, which is a length of 10 to 12 cm, width 5-6 cm, and thick, 3-4 cm, weighing about 140 grams. In cross kidneys, visible parts are different. The sections are from outside into the cortex, medulla, and pelvis. In the renal cortex and medulla there are about 1 million nephrons. Nephron is the structural and functional unit of the smallest of the kidney. Nephron serves as a screening tool.



Nephron is shaped like a large worm-headed eagle with a body like the winding. At the head there is a fine mesh that can only be bypassed by certain substances. Blood cells and blood proteins can not pass through this filter because it was bigger. The composition of the nephron consists of the following sections.

1) Malpighian Body, which includes Bowman's capsule and glomerulus.
2) convoluted tubules including proximal tubules, Henle, and distal tubules.

Some tubular-shaped winding, and so…

Animals Nose

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In vertebrates nose have function to expel air for respiration in conjunction with mouth. As like human, behind nose are olfactory mucosa and sinuses. Behind the nasal cavity, air will passes through pharynx, shared with digestive system, then air into the rest of respiratory system.
As like in human vertebrates’ nose also have similar function like inhale air from the atmosphere and take oxygen after passes the lung then release carbon dioxide. In vertebrates nose also have inner hairs whose functions to stop unwanted particles from entering the lungs.

In wet nose like dogs is useful for the perception of direction. Sensitive to cold receptors in the skin detect the place where the nose is cooled the most and this is the direction a particular smell that the animal just picked up comes from. The sensitive of smell on Dog nose is better than other normal animals.

Different in reptiles, nose have function to sense of heat that can predict the distance of other animal. The nasal chamb…

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the bladder; a balloon shape organ located in the pelvis that deviate urine. Most of these cancers start in the cells that line inside of the bladder.

This cancer usually attacks adults, although all age groups have the same opportunities. Generally, the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage of development, where the cancer is still treatable.

SYMPTOMS
Bladder cancer has the following symptoms:
There is blood in the urine (hematuria) or urine may be normal, but blood can be detected by microscopic examination .Frequent urinationPain during urinationInfection of the urinary tractPain in the stomach areaBackache Causes; Risk Factors

It is unclear what causes bladder cancer. Bladder cancer has been linked to smoking, parasitic infections, radiation and exposed to chemical substances. Bladder cancer occurs due to mutations in cells. This mutation causes cells to grow out of control and then live while the other cells die.

Risk factors
S…

Excretion Organ

Excretion is the process of spending one substance from the body. Excretion is the process of spending the rest of metabolism like urine, sweat, and breathing. There are 4 tools excretion in humans, kidneys, skin, liver, and lungs. Kidneys secrete urine, skin secretes sweat, heart secretes bile together with urine, and the lungs remove carbon dioxide and water vapor.

Kidney
Kidney is one excretion organ in humans are located in the rear of the abdominal cavity , the right of the left pubic bone . Kidney consists of three layers. Outer part called the cortex (kidney skin), underneath there modularly (marrow kidney) , and on the inside a cavity called the renal pelvis (kidney cavity). Kidney function associated with renal excretion system is to filter the blood and excreted in the form of urine. There are three stages the formation of urine filtration (blood filtering), reabsorption (reabsorption of useful substances in the urine), and augmentation (urine collection). Urine from the kid…

Joint Organ and Aging

The changes of people posture as the adding of ages, bones desity can be lost, and spinal vertebrae can be compressed, make the trunk look shorter or curved. The growing of bone can make the bone stiffer and less of flexibility. Beside the bone characteristic, muscles can less dense, make the arms and legs look thinner.

Exercise to the body can help to slow down this growing or prevent bone and muscle loss, and good nutrition, including help seniors to maintain the strength and good health.

Cells are the basic building blocks of tissue and with aging, cells grow larger and less able to reproduce. This condition can cause connection tissue among bones, blood, and lymph become more stiff, which can make blood vessels and organ rigid. Epithelial tissue (skin) loses fat, and can become thinner and more susceptible to injure.